OIL DEMAND BY SECTOR
2
117
World Oil Outlook 2014
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
The three largest bunkering ports in the world are Singapore, Fujairah (UAE) and
Rotterdam (Netherlands). Combined, they account for around one-third of the total
marine bunker fuel consumed in the world.
The port of Singapore is the largest bunkering port in the world. In 2012,
42.7 million tonnes of bunker fuel were sold.
63
Heavy fuel oil sales account for more
than three quarters of total bunker sales by volume. Singapore’s bunker turnover
has increased signi cantly in the last decade; it more than doubled between 2003
and 2012. The port is also one of the busiest ports in the world in terms of shipping
tonnage, with an annual average of 140,000 vessel calls.
Fujairah is the second largest bunkering port in the world. The Port of Fujairah
was built in the early 1980s and started operations in 1983. It is located on the
east coast of the UAE, just outside the Straits of Hormuz. Bunkers sales have been
increasing constantly due to its convenient location along one of the world’s major
shipping routes.
Rotterdam is the largest seaport and bunkering port in Europe. In 2012,
10.9 million tonnes of bunker fuel were sold.
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However, sales have been declining
since 2006 when 13.6 million tonnes were sold. This development is generally at-
tributed to the economic situation of recent years, although EU environmental policy
has also contributed to Rotterdam’s decline in bunker sales. On 1 January, 2010,
the EU implemented its requirement that ships burn fuel of 0.1% sulphur content
or less when they are within EU ports or within EU inland waterways. Therefore, Rot-
terdam lost the sales from high-sulphur fuel. These issues are discussed in detail in
Section Two.
Other important bunkering ports include Hong Kong (7.4 million tonnes in
2012), Antwerp, Belgium (6.5 million tonnes), Busan, South Korea (4.6 million
tonnes), Gibraltar (4.3 million tonnes), Panama (3.5 million tonnes in 2012),
Figure 2.22
Marine bunkers’ oil use and real GDP, 1985–2011
2.22
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0
5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000
mboe/d
$(2005) billion
OECD
Developing countries
1...,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142 144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,...396