Iraq facts and figures


Sharing borders with three other OPEC Member Countries – the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia – Iraq covers an area of around 438 thousand square kilometres. It has a population of about 42 million, one fifth of which lives in the capital, Baghdad. Most Iraqis speak Arabic, although Kurdish is also used, especially in the northern part of the country.

Iraq attained its independence as a Kingdom in 1932. In 1958, a military coup d’état ended the monarchy, making Iraq a republic.

Apart from petroleum, Iraq’s other natural resources include natural gas, phosphates and sulphur. Its national currency is the dinar. The country has a varied landscape, which includes areas of desert, mountains and fertile regions.

The country is a Founder Member of OPEC.

Did you know?

  • Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age.
  • Iraq’s Kirkuk oilfield consists of three domes – Baba, Avanah and Khurmala. It was at the Baba dome that the country’s first productive oil well was drilled in 1927.

Below data covers 2022

Population (million inhabitants) 42.25
Land area (1,000 sq km) 438
GDP per capita ($) 6,253
GDP at market prices (million $) 264,182
Value of exports (million $) 138,291
Value of petroleum exports (million $) 120,571
Current account balance (million $) 41,339
Proven crude oil reserves (million barrels) 145,019
Proven natural gas reserves (billion cu. m.) 3,714
Crude oil production (1,000 b/d) 4,453
Marketed production of natural gas (million cu. m.) 9,778
Refinery capacity (1,000 b/cd) 1,116
Output of petroleum products (1,000 b/d) 834
Oil demand (1,000 b/d) 828
Crude oil exports (1,000 b/d) 3,712
Exports of petroleum products (1,000 b/d) 172
Natural gas exports (million cu. m.) --

  • b/d (barrels per day)
  • cu. m. (cubic metres)
  • b/cd (barrels per calendar day)

Source: Annual Statistical Bulletin 2023

  • HE Hayan Abdulghani Abdulzahra Alsawad

    HE Hayan Abdulghani Abdulzahra Alsawad

    Deputy Prime Minister for Energy Affairs
    Minister of Oil
    Head of Delegation

  • Mr. Khudhyer Abbas Abed

    Mr. Khudhyer Abbas Abed

    Governor for OPEC

  • Dr. Mohammed Adnan Ibrahim Al-Najjar

    Dr. Mohammed Adnan Ibrahim Al-Najjar

    National Representative