In 1814, the genius of Franz Schubert (1797–1828) was first made
evident in his work Gretchen amSpinnrade, inspired by his reading
of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s (1749–1832) Faust.
His first Mass and his first symphony appeared about this time
and showed the influence of Haydn on him. Schubert composed
five more of Goethe’s works into songs.
By the end of 1814, Schubert was an assistant at his father’s
school. Between 1820 and 1823 Schubert achieved his musical
maturity. Two of his operettas and several of his songs were per-
formed in public; amateur and professional quartets sang his part-
songs for male voices.
On November 11, 1828, Schubert began suffering from nausea
and headache. Five days later the doctors diagnosed typhoid fever
and he died a few days later on November 19.
Johann Strauss I
Johann Strauss I was an AustrianRomantic
composer born in Vienna
on March 14, 1804. He was famous for hiswaltzes
and he popular-
ized themalongsideJoseph Lanner
, thereby setting the foundations
for his sons to carry on his musical dynasty.
The piece he is most famous for is theRadetzky March.
mother died of ‘creeping fever’ when he was seven and when he
was 12 his father was discovered drowned, possibly by suicide, in
Strauss was placed as an apprentice to a bookbinder by his
guardian, and took lessons in the violin andviola,
in addition to
fulfilling his apprenticeship.
He eventually joined a string quartet which playedViennese waltzes
and rustic German dances and expanded into a small string
orchestra in 1824, becoming deputyconductor
after it became pop-
ular during theFasching
He then formed his own band and began to write music (chiefly
dancemusic). Themusical competition betweenStrauss and Lanner
was very productive for the development of the waltz and other
dance music in Vienna.
Strauss soon became one of the best-known and well-
loved dance composers in Vienna. The conducting reins and
management of this Strauss Orchestra would eventually be passed
on to the hands of his sons until its disbandment by Eduard
Strauss in 1901.
Strauss died in Vienna on September 25, 1849, at the age of
45 from scarlet fever.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born on January 27, 1756, in Salzburg,
was an Austrian composer, widely recognized as one of the great-
est composers in the history of Westernmusic
. He composed more
than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles ofsymphonic
He is among the most enduringly popular ofclassical
ers, and his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music.Ludwig van Beethoven
composed his own early works in the
shadow of Mozart andJoseph Haydn
wrote: “Posterity will not see
such a talent again in 100 years.”
Unlike any other composer in musical history, Mozart wrote
in all the musicalgenres
of his day and excelled in every one. His
taste, his command ofform
and his range of expression have made
him seem the most universal of all composers.
, came from a family of good stand-
ing (from which he was estranged), which included architects and
As a boy, Wolfgang Mozart’s early talent for music was remark-
able. At three he was picking out chords on the harpsichord, at four
playing short pieces, and at five composing.
about his precise memory of pitch, about
his scribbling aconcerto
at the age of five and about his gentleness
At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg
court, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position.
in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg
He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but lit-
tle financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed
many of his best-knownsymphonies
portions of theRequiem,
which was largely unfinished at the time
of his death on December 5, 1791.
Johann Strauss J
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
OPEC bulletin 5–7/17