40
Separation
Coker
Fluid
Catalytic
Cracker
Prof.Riggs
Chapter 3 . Refining Oil (Downstream)
Conversion
In this phase, high temperatures and
pressure, as well as chemical catalysts, are used
to ‘crack’ or split heavy hydrocarbon molecules into
smaller, more desirable ones. This is the most
widely used conversion method and it is
called
CRACKING
.
Other refining processes
can rearrange hydrocarbon molecules
rather than simply splitting them, while other
processes clean them of impurities like sulphur
(a process called desulphurization) which are
harmful to the environment.
Refineries also treat the
wastes produced by the refining process.
This helps to minimize air and water pollution.
Modern refineries are equipped with advanced pollution
control systems. They purify waste water, remove
chemicals and capture the emissions of gases
and toxic materials.
This is carried out in
a cracking unit which consists
of a reactor with a thick wall, and
a network of large furnaces,
dividers and compartments.
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